Church of the Lutheran Brethren

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Official website: http://www.clba.org/

Beginning of Life

Abortion

Official Statement: from "Position Paper on Abortion"[1]

"WHEREAS, The members of the Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America throughout the synod’s history have spoken individually to condemn “willful abortion as contrary to the will of God;” and WHEREAS, We as members of Christian congregations have the obligation to protest this heinous crime against the will of God, a crime legally sanctioned in the United States and other lands; and WHEREAS, The practice of abortion, its promotion, and legal acceptance are destructive of the moral consciousness and character of the people of any nation; therefore be it Resolved, That the Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America in convention urgently call upon Christians
  1. To hold firmly to the clear Biblical truth that, (a) the living but unborn are “person” in the sight of God from the time of conception; (b) as persons the unborn stand under the full protection of God’s own prohibition against murder; and (c) since abortion takes a human life, abortion is not a moral option, except as a tragically unavoidable by-product of medical procedures necessary to prevent the death of another human being, viz., the mother; and
  2. To speak and act as responsible citizens in the civic and political arena on behalf of the living but unborn, to secure for these defenseless persons due protection under the law; and
  3. To offer as an alternative to abortion supportive understanding, compassion and help to the expectant parent(s) and family, and to foster concern for the unwanted babies, encouraging agencies and families to open hearts and homes to these children in their need for family; and be it further Resolved, That the Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America earnestly encourage its pastors, teachers, officers and boards
  4. To warn, publicly and privately (Prov. 31:8-9) against the sin of abortion;
  5. To instruct the community of God that abortion is not in the realm of Christian liberty, private choice, personal opinion, or political preference;
  6. To nurture a deep reverence and gratitude for God’s gracious gift of human life;
  7. To oppose in a responsible way attitudes and policies in congregations, schools, hospitals, and other institutions within their sphere of influence and work which suggest that abortion is a matter of personal choice;
  8. To support the efforts of responsible pro-life groups in their communities; and
  9. To promote clear instruction of Christians morality in our homes, schools, and churches, showing the blessings and safeguards inherent in God’s will for sexual chastity before marriage and faithfulness in marriage; and
  10. To teach the biological, social and parental functions of child-bearing within our Lutheran Brethren schools and churches; and
  11. To support the efforts to secure the Human Life Amendment to the United States Constitution;
  12. To show love and compassion to those who have had abortions and show them through the Gospel that there is a way of forgiveness." ("Position Paper on Abortion"[2])

End of Life

General Overview from "Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[3]

"Humanity has a natural desire to be in control. This urge drives much of the decision-making surrounding the national euthanasia discussion. Becoming involved in ethical decision-making regarding end of life issues has become a part of many people’’s lives. Upon what do they base their decisions? Some people base their point of view on popular opinion and what they believe to be common consensus, but others make such decisions on the basis of their religious beliefs and personal faith.
Our society seems to define life by going beyond physiological definitions about what constitutes life. Such terms as "lacking sufficient quality of life," "tragic circumstances," "unwanted, burdensome," "vegetable," "devoid of meaningful life" and so forth are often used to depersonalize individuals or whole classes of human beings. Once depersonalized these people are seen as burdens or problems, rather than as human beings who hold ultimate value because they were made in the image of God. As individuals in our society attempt to make decisions about what life is and what it is not, the ultimate value placed upon life is diminished. Acts such as partial birth abortion and euthanasia, once considered barbarous are now everyday occurrences.
Medical and technological advancements have produced dilemmas heretofore unknown for individuals and families. For example, we are able to keep a person alive by artificial means long after the body is capable of sustaining life. This produces complex situations in which life and death decisions must be made by individuals, families, doctors and judges. Add to this matrix the willful decision of some to actively end their own lives and to enlist the assistance of others, including doctors, and the result is much confusion, fear and controversy surrounding the end of life issues. As the people of our society age, the financial burden of caring for an aging population strains our medical resources. Society is tempted to find ways to lessen the burden by narrowing the definition of meaningful life. Some people in both government and the private sector contend that, in the interests of cost containment we cannot afford to devote resources to people who will soon die or whose lives are deemed to lack sufficient quality. Therefore, in the view of some, the right-to die becomes an obligation to die.
As Christians, we view these developments with great concern. We fear their impact on the elderly and the infirm, who face emotional, financial, and legal pressures to choose to die rather than burden their families. We should be similarly concerned about the impact on the medical profession, whose members' identity as healers is compromised by their potential role as executioners." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[4])
Principles to Provide Biblical Direction:
  • Life is a gift from God, over which we have stewardship but not absolute control. THEREFORE: A.) Death should not be actively induced. It should be the result of illness or injury and should not be caused by dehydration or starvation. B.) If someone is not dying but has a chronic disabling condition (including brain injury), that person has a right to food and water, as well as comfort and care."
  • Death is not the original design of God, but it is a reality in our fallen world."
  • God is ultimately sovereign over matters of life and death. . . . Dealing with the issues surrounding the dying process can be a beneficial part of a person's life and that of his or her loved ones. As long as person is living, God has a purpose for his or her life. When He does allow suffering, He always does so with a purpose in mind, although that purpose may be unknown to the individual suffering and to his or her loved ones. The book of Job contains profound wisdom about human suffering. Job tells us, finally, that while God always has reasons for allowing humans to suffer, we often do not know with certainty what those reasons are. God allowed Job to suffer to resolve a conflict between God and Satan –– a conflict that Job knew nothing about at the time. He may allow us to suffer to build our endurance. He may allow us to suffer to enable us to empathize with others (It seems the most compassionate people are usually those who have undergone great suffering themselves). He may allow our suffering to glorify Him as a witness to a loved one, or maybe to a medical provider, to show that person how a believer handles suffering. Or He may allow us to suffer as our final preparation to be with Him. God used Paul's thorn in the flesh, whatever it was, to keep him humble and dependent upon God's grace. The Christian has a duty to keep on living, and to preserve other human life, recognizing that God has the final jurisdiction over death. Certainly Christians, and particularly those in the medical profession, should actively work to alleviate suffering because Scripture commands us to do so. If Christians oppose suicide and euthanasia, we incur an increased obligation to ensure that terminally ill patients are comfortable. But we should always recognize that God is in sovereign control over pain and suffering as well as over life and death, and He may have reasons for allowing pain that are above our human understanding. Besides working to alleviate suffering, Christians should try to help people to learn and grow through the suffering process. THEREFORE: A.) Christians must reject any deliberate actions taken for the purpose of causing or hastening death i.e., euthanasia. This may include direct action (e.g., administering a lethal injection) or withholding of medical treatment or care (e.g., denying lifesaving medical treatment to a disabled child that would be provided to a normal child or denying food and water.) B.) If death is imminent and the dying process is irreversible, there is no obligation to provide or continue medical treatment that offers no hope of recovery. C.) Christian medical personnel should be firmly pro-life, that is, firmly in favor of using available means for preserving life, recognizing, of course, that ultimately the question of life or death is in the hands of God. D.) Christians are encouraged to dictate their end-of-life requests via the establishment of a ““living will”” or advanced directive and to let family members know of their end-of-life desires, in order to ensure that their lives are not terminated prematurely.
  • The Physician's role is to heal, not harm. THEREFORE: A.) If it is uncertain whether or not a person is dying, medical treatment should be provided to give that person the chance for survival. B.) If death is imminent and the dying process is irreversible, the person has a right to comfort care and pain relief. C.) Allowing a person to die when a disease process is irreversible and death is obviously imminent in hours or days is not euthanasia. Patients -- or, when they are not able to speak for themselves, their families -- have the freedom to refuse medical treatments which will not cure, improve, or control their disease process, treatments which will impose a burden beyond any benefits. D.) When a person cannot speak for himself/herself, it falls to the family to make decisions for him/her. The key question at this time must be ““What is God’’s will for this person in light of the Scriptures?”” not, "Is this person's life worth living?" or "What is best for us?" E.) In all discussion of euthanasia and assisted suicide, it is important to differentiate between care and medical treatment. Care meets the basic needs -- nutrition, hydration, warmth, shelter, emotional and spiritual support -- of all people, sick or well. Today, many seek to define food and water as medical treatments that can be withheld to hasten or cause death. This is unacceptable. This does not apply to the time when someone is so close to death that his or her body cannot metabolize food; then feeding may be useless and excessively burdensome. In all other cases, care must never be withheld. Medical treatment is aimed at curing or controlling acute or chronic health problems. Physicians can use standard treatment in many situations while more advanced or serious situations require aggressive treatment. Standard treatment consists of medical therapy, such as medications, and surgical procedures commonly used to relieve health conditions and other problems due to injuries or illness. When treatment becomes medically futile or the burden of that treatment outweighs its benefits, it must be evaluated considering the best interests of the patient while first and foremost glorifying God and obeying His Word. F.) As Christians, we are obliged to consider the will of God. The basis of any decision, therefore, is whether a given treatment will benefit or burden the life of a patient, not whether the life of a patient is useless, burdensome or worthy of care."
("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[5])

Artificial Hydration & Nutrition

Official Statements: from "Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[6]

"Life is a gift from God, over which we have stewardship but not absolute control. THEREFORE: A.) Death should not be actively induced. It should be the result of illness or injury and should not be caused by dehydration or starvation. B.) If someone is not dying but has a chronic disabling condition (including brain injury), that person has a right to food and water, as well as comfort and care." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[7])

Definition of Death

Official Statements:

"Death is not the original design of God, but it is a reality in our fallen world. To speak about death and the meaning of death, we must first define it, and then consider its ultimate purpose. Medical science uses two basic definitions of death: (1) "heart death," said to take place when the heartbeat ceases to register on an electrocardiogram (EKG); and (2) "brain death," said to take place when brain waves cease to register on an electroencephalogram (EEG). With increasing frequency, medics are able to resuscitate a person whose heart has stopped beating and who is considered "heart dead." Partially for this reason, medical science seems to be moving to define death as ““brain death.””
Scripture views death differently. In the biblical view, death occurs when the human spirit leaves the human body. However, there is no precise test, scientific or otherwise, by which we can determine when this takes place. That being the case, Christians should regard the medical definition, "brain death," as the best available indicator of death. Likewise, medical personnel should use the best scientific evidence of death, ““brain death”” as well. While Christians can accept this test as the medical evidence of death, they should not lose sight of the true meaning of death as found in Scripture. We should also remember that while God’’s Word is eternally true, medical technology changes with time. While ““brain death”” seems to be the best indicator today, it may be supplanted by new technology in the future.
Scripture tells us that death entered the world as a result of sin and as the penalty for sin. Death is sometimes described as separation -- separation of the person from the world and other people, separation of the soul from the body, and for the unbeliever, separation of the person from God. But for the believer, death is swallowed up in the victory of Christ over sin and death on the Cross, and to be absent from the body is to be present with the Lord. Christian teaching does not regard death as just a part of the life-cycle, as many pagan religions regard it. Rather, death is our enemy and is identified though not equated with hell and with Satan. We recognize that God sometimes uses the sufferings associated with death to strengthen the believer’’s faith and character and to prepare the believer for eternal life with Him, and that He sometimes uses the believer's perserverance through suffering as a witness and example to others." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[8])

Extraordinary Measures

Official Statements: from "Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[9]

"God is ultimately sovereign over matters of life and death. Some argue that the use of life support systems is at best superfluous, and at worst an interference with the sovereign will of God, because if God wants to keep a patient alive, He doesn’’t need life support systems to do it. God can preserve the life of a terminally ill patient even without extraordinary life support, if He wills to do so. God can also take the life of a terminally ill patient even despite extraordinary life support, if He wills to do so. The real question is, what should be the attitude and response of the Christian, and especially Christian medical personnel, in such terminal situations?
Today's society is fond of saying, "It's my body, and my life, and I can do what I want with it." But Scripture says otherwise. . . . God created us; God redeemed us; we are His. Since our lives are not our own, we do not have the right to terminate our own lives. Society and government also have some claims upon our lives. For this reason the Supreme Court has repeatedly recognized that the individual does not have an absolute right to terminate his or her life. The state has legitimate interests in preserving human life, among them the future contributions that individual may make to society, whether in the work force, the armed forces, government, economic, artistic, or other. Furthermore, allowing individuals to terminate their lives leads to a cheapening of human life in general." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[10])
"Dealing with the issues surrounding the dying process can be a beneficial part of a person's life and that of his or her loved ones. As long as person is living, God has a purpose for his or her life. When He does allow suffering, He always does so with a purpose in mind, although that purpose may be unknown to the individual suffering and to his or her loved ones. The book of Job contains profound wisdom about human suffering. Job tells us, finally, that while God always has reasons for allowing humans to suffer, we often do not know with certainty what those reasons are. God allowed Job to suffer to resolve a conflict between God and Satan –– a conflict that Job knew nothing about at the time. He may allow us to suffer to build our endurance. He may allow us to suffer to enable us to empathize with others (It seems the most compassionate people are usually those who have undergone great suffering themselves). He may allow our suffering to glorify Him as a witness to a loved one, or maybe to a medical provider, to show that person how a believer handles suffering. Or He may allow us to suffer as our final preparation to be with Him. God used Paul's thorn in the flesh, whatever it was, to keep him humble and dependent upon God's grace. The Christian has a duty to keep on living, and to preserve other human life, recognizing that God has the final jurisdiction over death. Certainly Christians, and particularly those in the medical profession, should actively work to alleviate suffering because Scripture commands us to do so. If Christians oppose suicide and euthanasia, we incur an increased obligation to ensure that terminally ill patients are comfortable. But we should always recognize that God is in sovereign control over pain and suffering as well as over life and death, and He may have reasons for allowing pain that are above our human understanding. Besides working to alleviate suffering, Christians should try to help people to learn and grow through the suffering process. THEREFORE: A.) Christians must reject any deliberate actions taken for the purpose of causing or hastening death i.e., euthanasia. This may include direct action (e.g., administering a lethal injection) or withholding of medical treatment or care (e.g., denying lifesaving medical treatment to a disabled child that would be provided to a normal child or denying food and water.) B.) If death is imminent and the dying process is irreversible, there is no obligation to provide or continue medical treatment that offers no hope of recovery. C.) Christian medical personnel should be firmly pro-life, that is, firmly in favor of using available means for preserving life, recognizing, of course, that ultimately the question of life or death is in the hands of God. D.) Christians are encouraged to dictate their end-of-life requests via the establishment of a ““living will”” or advanced directive and to let family members know of their end-of-life desires, in order to ensure that their lives are not terminated prematurely." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[11])


Physician-Assisted Suicide/Euthanasia

Official Statement: from "Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[12]

"Life is a gift from God, over which we have stewardship but not absolute control. THEREFORE: A.) Death should not be actively induced. It should be the result of illness or injury and should not be caused by dehydration or starvation. B.) If someone is not dying but has a chronic disabling condition (including brain injury), that person has a right to food and water, as well as comfort and care." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[13])
"God is ultimately sovereign over matters of life and death. Some argue that the use of life support systems is at best superfluous, and at worst an interference with the sovereign will of God, because if God wants to keep a patient alive, He doesn’’t need life support systems to do it. God can preserve the life of a terminally ill patient even without extraordinary life support, if He wills to do so. God can also take the life of a terminally ill patient even despite extraordinary life support, if He wills to do so. The real question is, what should be the attitude and response of the Christian, and especially Christian medical personnel, in such terminal situations?
Today's society is fond of saying, "It's my body, and my life, and I can do what I want with it." But Scripture says otherwise. . . . God created us; God redeemed us; we are His. Since our lives are not our own, we do not have the right to terminate our own lives. Society and government also have some claims upon our lives. For this reason the Supreme Court has repeatedly recognized that the individual does not have an absolute right to terminate his or her life. The state has legitimate interests in preserving human life, among them the future contributions that individual may make to society, whether in the work force, the armed forces, government, economic, artistic, or other. Furthermore, allowing individuals to terminate their lives leads to a cheapening of human life in general."
"At first glance, physician-assisted suicide may seem more benign than other kinds of suicide. But it actually compounds the ethical dimensions of the issue, for it places the medical profession in the role of taking life rather than preserving life. While the physician may believe he or she is acting out of humane and benevolent motives, in reality he is usurping for himself a role that belongs only to God, that of taking human life. In a very few situations it might be argued that God has delegated that role to certain people, such as soldiers in time of war, police protecting the public from criminals, executioners for those convicted of capital offenses, or those engaged in legitimate defense of themselves or others. But nowhere does Scripture justify a physician or anyone else killing an innocent person to relieve suffering or for other supposedly merciful reasons."
"Dealing with the issues surrounding the dying process can be a beneficial part of a person's life and that of his or her loved ones. As long as person is living, God has a purpose for his or her life. When He does allow suffering, He always does so with a purpose in mind, although that purpose may be unknown to the individual suffering and to his or her loved ones. The book of Job contains profound wisdom about human suffering. Job tells us, finally, that while God always has reasons for allowing humans to suffer, we often do not know with certainty what those reasons are. God allowed Job to suffer to resolve a conflict between God and Satan –– a conflict that Job knew nothing about at the time. He may allow us to suffer to build our endurance. He may allow us to suffer to enable us to empathize with others (It seems the most compassionate people are usually those who have undergone great suffering themselves). He may allow our suffering to glorify Him as a witness to a loved one, or maybe to a medical provider, to show that person how a believer handles suffering. Or He may allow us to suffer as our final preparation to be with Him. God used Paul's thorn in the flesh, whatever it was, to keep him humble and dependent upon God's grace. The Christian has a duty to keep on living, and to preserve other human life, recognizing that God has the final jurisdiction over death. Certainly Christians, and particularly those in the medical profession, should actively work to alleviate suffering because Scripture commands us to do so. If Christians oppose suicide and euthanasia, we incur an increased obligation to ensure that terminally ill patients are comfortable. But we should always recognize that God is in sovereign control over pain and suffering as well as over life and death, and He may have reasons for allowing pain that are above our human understanding. Besides working to alleviate suffering, Christians should try to help people to learn and grow through the suffering process. THEREFORE: A.) Christians must reject any deliberate actions taken for the purpose of causing or hastening death i.e., euthanasia. This may include direct action (e.g., administering a lethal injection) or withholding of medical treatment or care (e.g., denying lifesaving medical treatment to a disabled child that would be provided to a normal child or denying food and water.) B.) If death is imminent and the dying process is irreversible, there is no obligation to provide or continue medical treatment that offers no hope of recovery. C.) Christian medical personnel should be firmly pro-life, that is, firmly in favor of using available means for preserving life, recognizing, of course, that ultimately the question of life or death is in the hands of God. D.) Christians are encouraged to dictate their end-of-life requests via the establishment of a ““living will”” or advanced directive and to let family members know of their end-of-life desires, in order to ensure that their lives are not terminated prematurely." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[14])
The Physician's role is to heal, not harm. THEREFORE: A.) If it is uncertain whether or not a person is dying, medical treatment should be provided to give that person the chance for survival. B.) If death is imminent and the dying process is irreversible, the person has a right to comfort care and pain relief. C.) Allowing a person to die when a disease process is irreversible and death is obviously imminent in hours or days is not euthanasia. Patients -- or, when they are not able to speak for themselves, their families -- have the freedom to refuse medical treatments which will not cure, improve, or control their disease process, treatments which will impose a burden beyond any benefits. D.) When a person cannot speak for himself/herself, it falls to the family to make decisions for him/her. The key question at this time must be ““What is God’’s will for this person in light of the Scriptures?”” not, "Is this person's life worth living?" or "What is best for us?" E.) In all discussion of euthanasia and assisted suicide, it is important to differentiate between care and medical treatment. Care meets the basic needs -- nutrition, hydration, warmth, shelter, emotional and spiritual support -- of all people, sick or well. Today, many seek to define food and water as medical treatments that can be withheld to hasten or cause death. This is unacceptable. This does not apply to the time when someone is so close to death that his or her body cannot metabolize food; then feeding may be useless and excessively burdensome. In all other cases, care must never be withheld. Medical treatment is aimed at curing or controlling acute or chronic health problems. Physicians can use standard treatment in many situations while more advanced or serious situations require aggressive treatment. Standard treatment consists of medical therapy, such as medications, and surgical procedures commonly used to relieve health conditions and other problems due to injuries or illness. When treatment becomes medically futile or the burden of that treatment outweighs its benefits, it must be evaluated considering the best interests of the patient while first and foremost glorifying God and obeying His Word. F.) As Christians, we are obliged to consider the will of God. The basis of any decision, therefore, is whether a given treatment will benefit or burden the life of a patient, not whether the life of a patient is useless, burdensome or worthy of care." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[15])

Withholding & Withdrawing Treatment

Official Statements: from "Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[16]

"God is ultimately sovereign over matters of life and death. Some argue that the use of life support systems is at best superfluous, and at worst an interference with the sovereign will of God, because if God wants to keep a patient alive, He doesn’’t need life support systems to do it. God can preserve the life of a terminally ill patient even without extraordinary life support, if He wills to do so. God can also take the life of a terminally ill patient even despite extraordinary life support, if He wills to do so. The real question is, what should be the attitude and response of the Christian, and especially Christian medical personnel, in such terminal situations?
Today's society is fond of saying, "It's my body, and my life, and I can do what I want with it." But Scripture says otherwise. . . . God created us; God redeemed us; we are His. Since our lives are not our own, we do not have the right to terminate our own lives. Society and government also have some claims upon our lives. For this reason the Supreme Court has repeatedly recognized that the individual does not have an absolute right to terminate his or her life. The state has legitimate interests in preserving human life, among them the future contributions that individual may make to society, whether in the work force, the armed forces, government, economic, artistic, or other. Furthermore, allowing individuals to terminate their lives leads to a cheapening of human life in general." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[17])
"Dealing with the issues surrounding the dying process can be a beneficial part of a person's life and that of his or her loved ones. As long as person is living, God has a purpose for his or her life. When He does allow suffering, He always does so with a purpose in mind, although that purpose may be unknown to the individual suffering and to his or her loved ones. The book of Job contains profound wisdom about human suffering. Job tells us, finally, that while God always has reasons for allowing humans to suffer, we often do not know with certainty what those reasons are. God allowed Job to suffer to resolve a conflict between God and Satan –– a conflict that Job knew nothing about at the time. He may allow us to suffer to build our endurance. He may allow us to suffer to enable us to empathize with others (It seems the most compassionate people are usually those who have undergone great suffering themselves). He may allow our suffering to glorify Him as a witness to a loved one, or maybe to a medical provider, to show that person how a believer handles suffering. Or He may allow us to suffer as our final preparation to be with Him. God used Paul's thorn in the flesh, whatever it was, to keep him humble and dependent upon God's grace. The Christian has a duty to keep on living, and to preserve other human life, recognizing that God has the final jurisdiction over death. Certainly Christians, and particularly those in the medical profession, should actively work to alleviate suffering because Scripture commands us to do so. If Christians oppose suicide and euthanasia, we incur an increased obligation to ensure that terminally ill patients are comfortable. But we should always recognize that God is in sovereign control over pain and suffering as well as over life and death, and He may have reasons for allowing pain that are above our human understanding. Besides working to alleviate suffering, Christians should try to help people to learn and grow through the suffering process. THEREFORE: A.) Christians must reject any deliberate actions taken for the purpose of causing or hastening death i.e., euthanasia. This may include direct action (e.g., administering a lethal injection) or withholding of medical treatment or care (e.g., denying lifesaving medical treatment to a disabled child that would be provided to a normal child or denying food and water.) B.) If death is imminent and the dying process is irreversible, there is no obligation to provide or continue medical treatment that offers no hope of recovery. C.) Christian medical personnel should be firmly pro-life, that is, firmly in favor of using available means for preserving life, recognizing, of course, that ultimately the question of life or death is in the hands of God. D.) Christians are encouraged to dictate their end-of-life requests via the establishment of a ““living will”” or advanced directive and to let family members know of their end-of-life desires, in order to ensure that their lives are not terminated prematurely." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[18])
"A person has the right to refuse treatment, the right to exercise the rights of a resident of the facility and as a citizen or resident of the United States, and the right to be free of interference, coercion, discrimination, or reprisal from the facility in exercising their rights. If a person has been adjudged incompetent under State law, his or her rights are exercised by the person appointed under State law to act on their behalf. If a person has not been adjudged incompetent, any legal surrogate designated under State law may exercise that person's rights to the extent permitted under State law." ("Position Paper on Euthanasia and Assisted-Suicide"[19])

Notes

  1. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Abortion.pdf
  2. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Abortion.pdf
  3. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  4. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  5. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  6. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  7. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  8. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  9. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  10. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  11. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  12. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  13. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  14. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  15. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  16. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  17. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  18. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
  19. http://www.clba.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Euthanasia_and_Assisted_Suicide.pdf
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