United Methodist Church

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Official website: http://www.umc.org

Beginning of Life

Abortion

The UMC allows for abortion in only very particular cases and after much prayer and consideration.

Official Statement: See "What is the United Methodist position on abortion?" page on the denominational website's FAQ.[1]

"Our belief in the sanctity of unborn human life makes us reluctant to approve abortion. But we are equally bound to respect the sacredness of the life and well-being of the mother and the unborn child. We recognize tragic conflicts of life with life that may justify abortion, and in such cases we support the legal option of abortion under proper medical procedures. We support parental, guardian, or other responsible adult notification and consent before abortions can be performed on girls who have not yet reached the age of legal adulthood. We cannot affirm abortion as an acceptable means of birth control, and we unconditionally reject it as a means of gender selection." (Book of Discipline 161.J)[2]
"We oppose the use of late-term abortion known as dilation and extraction (partial-birth abortion) and call for the end of this practice except when the physical life of the mother is in danger and no other medical procedure is available, or in the case of severe fetal anomalies incompatible with life…We call all Christians to a searching and prayerful inquiry into the sorts of conditions that may cause them to consider abortion. The Church shall offer ministries to reduce unintended pregnancies. We commit our Church to continue to provide nurturing ministries to those who terminate a pregnancy, to those in the midst of a crisis pregnancy, and to those who give birth. We particularly encourage the Church, the government, and social service agencies to support and facilitate the option of adoption. (See ¶ 161.L.)" (Book of Discipline 161.J)[3]
"Governmental laws and regulations do not provide all the guidance required by the informed Christian conscience. Therefore, a decision concerning abortion should be made only after thoughtful and prayerful consideration by the parties involved, with medical, pastoral, and other appropriate counsel." (Book of Discipline 161.J)[4]
"We call on the church to support persons who, because of the likelihood of severe genetic disorders, must make difficult decisions regarding reproduction. We reaffirm the 1988 General Conference (The Book of Discipline 1988, ¶ 71G) position opposing the termination of pregnancy solely for the purpose of gender selection." ("New Developments in Genetic Science" in The Book of Resolutions VI.E.1.c, 2008.)[5]

Contraception

Official Statement: The UMC has taken a position on population control that is suggestive for practices of contraception.

"Since the growing worldwide population is increasingly straining the world’s supply of food, minerals, and water and sharpening international tensions, the reduction of the rate of consumption of resources by the affluent and the reduction of current world population growth rates have become imperative.
People have the duty to consider the impact on the total world community of their decisions regarding childbearing and should have access to information and appropriate means to limit their fertility, including voluntary sterilization.
We affirm that programs to achieve a stabilized population should be placed in a context of total economic and social development, including an equitable use and control of resources; improvement in the status of women in all cultures; a human level of economic security, health care, and literacy for all. We oppose any policy of forced abortion or forced sterilization." (Book of Discipline 162.K)[6]

Infertility & Reproduction

Reproductive Technology

In-Vitro Fertilization

Official Statement:

"We call for a ban on medical and research procedures that intentionally generate “waste embryos” that will knowingly be destroyed when the medical procedure or the research is completed. The exception to this is when ova (eggs) are being collected for use in in vitro fertilization. A woman is at risk for complications each time drugs are given to stimulate ovulation and ova are removed. Obtaining and fertilizing multiple ova may be justified to avoid the necessity of multiple attempts to obtain ova. The first attempt at IVF results in a living child less than 30% of the time thus making multiple attempts necessary." (Book of Resolutions 2008 New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.1.e )[7]

Nuclear Transfer and Cloning (for reproduction)

Official Statement:

"We oppose the cloning of humans and the genetic manipulation of the gender of an unborn child." (Book of Discipline 162.O)[8]

Frozen Oocytes

Official Statement:

"We call for a ban on medical and research procedures that intentionally generate “waste embryos” that will knowingly be destroyed when the medical procedure or the research is completed. The exception to this is when ova (eggs) are being collected for use in in vitro fertilization. A woman is at risk for complications each time drugs are given to stimulate ovulation and ova are removed. Obtaining and fertilizing multiple ova may be justified to avoid the necessity of multiple attempts to obtain ova." (Book of Resolutions 2008 New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.1.e )[9]

Healthcare & Medicine

Access to Healthcare

Official Statement:

"The right to health care includes care for persons with brain diseases, neurological conditions or physical disabilities, who must be afforded the same access to health care as all other persons in our communities. It is unjust to construct or perpetuate barriers to physical or mental wholeness or full participation in community." (Book of Discipline 162.V, 2008.)[10]
As part of "Access to Healthcare" the UMC affirms access to educational tools and information regarding preventative healthcare as well as information on family planning and AIDS prevention: "We affirm the right of men and women to have access to comprehensive reproductive health/family planning information and services which will serve as a means to prevent unplanned pregnancies, reduce abortions and prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS." (Book of Discipline 162.V, 2008.)[11]
"We support the right of all persons to health care and health-care resources regardless of their genetic or medical conditions. We support equal access to medical resources, including genetic testing and genetic counseling by appropriately educated and trained health-care professionals. We affirm that responsible stewardship of God's gift of human life implies access of all persons to genetic counseling throughout their reproductive life." ("New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.1.a-b" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[12]

Organ Donation & Transplantation

Official Statement:

The UMC encourages organ donation and transplantation. It considers it a free gift that should be conducted with respect towards all involved.
"We believe that organ transplantation and organ donation are acts of charity, agape love, and self-sacrifice. We recognize the life-giving benefits of organ and other tissue donation and encourage all people of faith to become organ and tissue donors as a part of their love and ministry to others in need. We urge that it be done in an environment of respect for deceased and living donors and for the benefit of the recipients, and following protocols that carefully prevent abuse to donors and their families." (Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church 162.W, 2008.)[13]

Privacy of Healthcare Information

Official Statement:

The UMC takes a strong stance on confidentiality of genetic information:
"Genetic data of individuals and their families should be kept secret and held in strict confidence unless confidentiality is waived by the individual or by his or her family, or unless the collection and use of genetic identification data is supported by an appropriate court order." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[14]
"We support the privacy of genetic information. Genetic data of individuals and their families shall be kept secret and held in strict confidence unless confidentiality is waived by the individual or his or her family, or unless the collection and use of genetic identification data are supported by an appropriate court order. We support wide public access to genetic data that do not identify particular individuals, but we oppose using genetic data gathered for purposes other than that to which consent was given. We oppose the discriminatory or manipulative use of genetic information, such as the limitation, termination, or denial of insurance or employment." ("New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.2.a-c" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[15]


Science & Technology

Biotechnology

Human Cloning

Official Position:

"We oppose the cloning of humans and the genetic manipulation of the gender of an unborn child." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[16]
" We call for a ban on medical and research procedures that intentionally generate “waste embryos” that will knowingly be destroyed when the medical procedure or the research is completed. The exception to this is when ova (eggs) are being collected for use in in vitro fertilization. A woman is at risk for complications each time drugs are given to stimulate ovulation and ova are removed. Obtaining and fertilizing multiple ova may be justified to avoid the necessity of multiple attempts to obtain ova. The first attempt at IVF results in a living child less than 30% of the time thus making multiple attempts necessary." (New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.1.e 2008.)[17]
"We call on all nations to ban human cloning (the intentional production of genetically identical or essentially identical human beings and human embryos), whether such cloning is funded privately or through government research." ("New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.1.d" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[18]

Stem Cell Research

Official Position: from "Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research"[19] The UMC does not have a moral problem with the use of adult stem cells or stem cells from fetal tissue such as umbilical cord blood.

"…be it resolved, that the 2008 General Conference join with other faith communities to support and dialogue with the medical and scientific communities concerning the ethical standards for its use; and Be it further resolved, that the General Board of Church and Society identify and publish on their Web site educational resources. We encourage each pastor to use the resources to become informed concerning the debate regarding the use of embryonic stem cells for medical research and to offer these resources for study in her or his local church." (Book of Resolutions 2008)[20]
"We call for a ban on medical and research procedures which intentionally generate "waste embryos" which will knowingly be destroyed when the medical procedure or the research is completed." ("New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.1.e" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church, 2004.)[21]

Emerging Technologies

Ethical Use of Technology

Official Statement:

"We recognize science as a legitimate interpretation of God’s natural world. We affirm the validity of the claims of science in describing the natural world and in determining what is scientific. We preclude science from making authoritative claims about theological issues and theology from making authoritative claims about scientific issues. We recognize medical, technical, and scientific technologies as legitimate uses of God’s natural world when such use enhances human life and enables all of God’s children to develop their God-given creative potential without violating our ethical convictions about the relationship of humanity to the natural world." (The Book of Discipline 160.F of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[22]
"In acknowledging the important roles of science and technology, however, we also believe that theological understandings of human experience are crucial to a full understanding of the place of humanity in the universe. Science and theology are complementary rather than mutually incompatible. We therefore encourage dialogue between the scientific and theological communities and seek the kind of participation that will enable humanity to sustain life on earth and, by God’s grace, increase the quality of our common lives together." (The Book of Discipline 169.F of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[23]
"Technology in Service to Humanity and God — God has given human beings the capacity for research and technological invention, but the worship of science is idolatry. Genetic techniques have enormous potential for sustaining creation and, for some, improving the quality of human life when they are applied to environmental, agricultural, and medical problems. When wisely used, they often provide positive—though limited and imperfect—solutions to such perplexing social problems as insufficient food supply, spread of disease, ecological deterioration, overpopulation, and human disease. When used recklessly, for greedy profit, or for calculated improvement of the human race (eugenics), genetic technology becomes corrupted by sin. Moreover, we recognize that even the careful use of genetic technologies for good ends may lead to unintended consequences. We confess that even our intended consequences may not be in the best interest of all." ("New Developments in Genetic Science II.C" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[24]

Genetic Ethics

"The United Methodist doctrinal/theological statement affirms that "new issues continually arise that summon us to fresh theological inquiry. Daily we are presented with an array of concerns that challenge our proclamation of God's reign over all of human existence" (The Book of Discipline 1988, ¶ 69).
One of the concerns that merits critique in light of theological understandings is genetic science. The urgent task of interpreting the faith in light of the biotechnology revolution and evaluating the rapidly emerging genetic science and technology has only begun. The issues demand continuing dialogue at all levels of the church as persons from diverse perspectives seek to discern and live out God's vision for creation." ("New Developments in Genetic Science II" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[25]
" Technology in Service to Humanity and God — God has given human beings the capacity for research and technological invention, but the worship of science is idolatry. Genetic techniques have enormous potential for sustaining creation and, for some, improving the quality of human life when they are applied to environmental, agricultural, and medical problems. When wisely used, they often provide positive—though limited and imperfect—solutions to such perplexing social problems as insufficient food supply, spread of disease, ecological deterioration, overpopulation, and human disease. When used recklessly, for greedy profit, or for calculated improvement of the human race (eugenics), genetic technology becomes corrupted by sin. Moreover, we recognize that even the careful use of genetic technologies for good ends may lead to unintended consequences. We confess that even our intended consequences may not be in the best interest of all." ("New Developments in Genetic Science II.C" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[26]
" We affirm that knowledge of genetics is a resource over which we are to exercise stewardship responsibly in accordance with God’s reign over creation. We believe the use of genetic knowledge in ways that destabilize and fragment creation violates God’s vision of justice, peace, and wholeness. We caution that the prevalent principle in research that what can be done should be done is insufficient rationale for genetic science. This principle should be subject to legal and ethical oversight in research design and should not be the prevalent principle guiding the development of new technologies. Applications of research to technologies need moral and ethical guidance. We urge adequate public funding of genetic research so that projects not likely to be funded by private grants will receive adequate support and so that there will be greater accountability to the public by those involved in setting the direction of genetic research." ("New Developments in Genetic Science VI.A.1-3" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[27]


Gender Selection

Official Statement:

"We oppose the cloning of humans and the genetic manipulation of the gender of an unborn child." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[28]
"We call on the church to support persons who, because of the likelihood of severe genetic disorders, must make difficult decisions regarding reproduction. We reaffirm the 1988 General Conference (The Book of Discipline 1988, ¶ 71G) position opposing the termination of pregnancy solely for the purpose of gender selection." ("New Developments in Genetic Science" in The Book of Resolutions VI.E.1.c, 2008.)[29]

Gene Therapy/Genetic Engineering

Official Statement:

"The responsibility of humankind to God’s creation challenges us to deal carefully with the possibilities of genetic research and technology. We welcome the use of genetic technology for meeting fundamental human needs for health, a safe environment, and an adequate food supply." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[30]
"Because of the effects of genetic technologies on all life, we call for effective guidelines and public accountability to safeguard against any action that might lead to abuse of these technologies, including political or military ends. We recognize that cautious, well-intended use of genetic technologies may sometimes lead to unanticipated harmful consequences." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[31]
The UMC distinguishes between the use of rDNA and genetic technology for alleviation of suffering versus cosmetic purposes.
"We support human somatic gene therapies (recombinant DNA therapies that produce genetic changes in an individual which cannot be passed to offspring) that prevent or minimize disease and its effects. But we believe these therapies should be limited to the alleviation of suffering caused by disease. We urge that guidelines and government regulations be developed for the use of all somatic gene therapies. We oppose human germ-line therapies (those that result in changes that can be passed to offspring) because of the possibility of unintended consequences and of abuse. With current technology it is not possible to know if artificially introduced genes will have unexpected or delayed long-term effects not identifiable until the genes have been dispersed in the population. We oppose both somatic and germ-line therapies when they are used for eugenic purposes or enhancements, that is, to provide only cosmetic change or to provide social advantage. Furthermore, we urge that government regulations and professional organization guidelines be developed and effectively implemented for all gene therapies." ("New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.1.c" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church,2008.)[32]
"Human gene therapies that produce changes that cannot be passed to offspring (somatic therapy) should be limited to the alleviation of suffering caused by disease." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[33]

Genetic Screening

Official Statement:

"Because its long-term effects are uncertain, we oppose genetic therapy that results in changes that can be passed to offspring (germ-line therapy)." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[34]

Genetic Testing

Official Statement:

"We support the right of all persons to health care and health-care resources regardless of their genetic or medical conditions. We support equal access to medical resources, including genetic testing and genetic counseling by appropriately educated and trained health-care professionals. We affirm that responsible stewardship of God's gift of human life implies access of all persons to genetic counseling throughout their reproductive life." ("New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.1.a-b" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church,2008.)[35]

Patenting of Human Tissue/Gene Patenting

Official Statement:

The UMC is against patenting of human genes and the patenting of new life forms, while there is permissibility to patent processes.
"But should exclusive ownership rights apply to the gene pool? In 1984, the General Conference of The United Methodist Church declared genes to be a part of the common heritage of all peoples. The position taken by the church in 1984 is consistent with our understanding of the sanctity of God's creation and God's ownership of life. Therefore, exclusive ownership rights of genes as a means of making genetic technologies accessible raises serious theological concerns. While patents on organisms themselves are opposed, process patents—wherein the method for engineering a new organism is patented—provide a means of economic return on investment while avoiding exclusive ownership of the organism and can be supported." ("New Developments in Genetic Science V" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church,2008.)[36]
"We urge that genes, cells and all living organisms be held as common resources and not be exclusively controlled, or patented. We support improvements in the procedures for granting patents on processes and techniques as a way to reward new developments in this area, although we recognize that even process patents should be limited when they are in effect discoveries of how God makes the processes of living organism." ("New Developments in Genetic Science VI.A.1" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church,2008.)[37]

Human Enhancement

Official Statement:

"The responsibility of humankind to God’s creation challenges us to deal carefully with the possibilities of genetic research and technology. We welcome the use of genetic technology for meeting fundamental human needs for health, a safe environment, and an adequate food supply." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[38]
"Because of the effects of genetic technologies on all life, we call for effective guidelines and public accountability to safeguard against any action that might lead to abuse of these technologies, including political or military ends. We recognize that cautious, well-intended use of genetic technologies may sometimes lead to unanticipated harmful consequences." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[39]
The UMC distinguishes between the use of rDNA and genetic technology for alleviation of suffering versus cosmetic purposes.
"We support human somatic gene therapies (recombinant DNA therapies that produce genetic changes in an individual which cannot be passed to offspring) that prevent or minimize disease and its effects. But we believe these therapies should be limited to the alleviation of suffering caused by disease. We urge that guidelines and government regulations be developed for the use of all somatic gene therapies. We oppose human germ-line therapies (those that result in changes that can be passed to offspring) because of the possibility of unintended consequences and of abuse. With current technology it is not possible to know if artificially introduced genes will have unexpected or delayed long-term effects not identifiable until the genes have been dispersed in the population. We oppose both somatic and germ-line therapies when they are used for eugenic purposes or enhancements, that is, to provide only cosmetic change or to provide social advantage. Furthermore, we urge that government regulations and professional organization guidelines be developed and effectively implemented for all gene therapies." ("New Developments in Genetic Science VI.B.1.c" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church,2008.)[40]
"Human gene therapies that produce changes that cannot be passed to offspring (somatic therapy) should be limited to the alleviation of suffering caused by disease." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[41]

Human Research Ethics

Official Statement:

"Physical and mental health has been greatly enhanced through discoveries by medical science. It is imperative, however, that governments and the medical profession carefully enforce the requirements of the prevailing medical research standard, maintaining rigid controls in testing new technologies and drugs utilizing human beings. The standard requires that those engaged in research shall use human beings as research subjects only after obtaining full, rational, and uncoerced consent." (Book of Discipline 162.N of the United Methodist Church, 2008.)[42]

Experimentation on Human Embryos

Official Statement:

"…be it resolved, that the 2008 General Conference join with other faith communities to support and dialogue with the medical and scientific communities concerning the ethical standards for its use; and Be it further resolved, that the General Board of Church and Society identify and publish on their Web site educational resources. We encourage each pastor to use the resources to become informed concerning the debate regarding the use of embryonic stem cells for medical research and to offer these resources for study in her or his local church." (Book of Resolutions 2008)[43]

End of Life

"Even when one accepts the inevitability of death, the church and society must continue to provide faithful care, including pain relief, companionship, support, and spiritual nurture for the dying person in the hard work of preparing for death. We encourage and support the concept of hospice care whenever possible at the end of life. Faithful care does not end at death but continues during bereavement as we care for grieving families." (Book of Discipline 161.M of the United Methodist Church, 2008.)[44]

Extraordinary Measures

Official Statements:

"Care for dying persons is part of our stewardship of the divine gift of life when cure is no longer possible. We encourage the use of medical technologies to provide palliative care at the end of life when life-sustaining treatments no longer support the goals of life, and when they have reached their limits. There is no moral or religious obligation to use these when they impose undue burdens or only extend the process of dying. Dying persons and their families are free to discontinue treatments when they cease to be of benefit to the patient." (Book of Discipline 161.M of the United Methodist Church, 2008.)[45]

Physician-Assisted Suicide/Euthanasia

Official Statement:

"We believe that suicide is not the way a human life should end. Often suicide is the result of untreated depression, or untreated pain and suffering. The church has an obligation to see that all persons have access to needed pastoral and medical care and therapy in those circumstances that lead to loss of self-worth, suicidal despair, and/or the desire to seek physician-assisted suicide…The Church opposes assisted suicide and euthanasia." (Book of Discipline 161.N of the United Methodist Church, 2008.)[46]

Withholding & Withdrawing Treatment

Official Statement:

"Care for dying persons is part of our stewardship of the divine gift of life when cure is no longer possible. We encourage the use of medical technologies to provide palliative care at the end of life when life-sustaining treatments no longer support the goals of life, and when they have reached their limits. There is no moral or religious obligation to use these when they impose undue burdens or only extend the process of dying. Dying persons and their families are free to discontinue treatments when they cease to be of benefit to the patient." (Book of Discipline 161.M of the United Methodist Church, 2008.)[47]


Issues of Human Dignity & Discrimination

Disability Ethics

Official Statement:

"We recognize and affirm the full humanity and personhood of all individuals with mental, physical, developmental, neurological, and psychological conditions or disabilities as full members of the family of God. We also affirm their rightful place in both the Church and society. We affirm the responsibility of the Church and society to be in ministry with children, youth, and adults with mental, physical, developmental, and/or psychological and neurological conditions or disabilities whose particular needs in the areas of mobility, communication, intellectual comprehension, or personal relationships might make more challenging their participation or that of their families in the life of the Church and the community. We urge the Church and society to recognize and receive the gifts of persons with disabilities to enable them to be full participants in the community of faith. We call the Church and society to be sensitive to, and advocate for, programs of rehabilitation, services, employment, education, appropriate housing, and transportation. We call on the Church and society to protect the civil rights of persons with all types and kinds of disabilities." (The Book of Discipline 162.I of the United Methodist Church, 2008.)[48]
The UMC advocates same access to healthcare for people with disabilities as anyone else in the community.(The Book of Discipline 162.V of the United Methodist Church, 2008.)[49]
"The right to health care includes care for persons with brain diseases, neurological conditions or physical disabilities, who must be afforded the same access to health care as all other persons in our communities. It is unjust to construct or perpetuate barriers to physical or mental wholeness or full participation in community." (Book of Discipline 162.V of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[50]

Eugenics

Official Statements: (See also See contraception and population control – the UMC is against forced sterilization and forced abortion.)

"Technology in Service to Humanity and God — God has given human beings the capacity for research and technological invention, but the worship of science is idolatry. Genetic techniques have enormous potential for enhancing creation and human life when they are applied to environmental, agricultural, and medical problems. When wisely used, they often provide positive—though limited and imperfect—solutions to such perplexing social problems as insufficient food supply, spread of disease, ecological deterioration, overpopulation, and human suffering. When used recklessly, for greedy profit, or for calculated improvement of the human race (eugenics), genetic technology becomes corrupted by sin. Moreover, we recognize that even the careful use of genetic technologies for good ends may lead to unintended consequences. We confess that even our intended consequences may not be in the best interest of all." ("New Developments in Genetic Science II.C" in The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[51]
"Genetic therapies for eugenic choices or that produce waste embryos are deplored." (Book of Discipline 162.O of The United Methodist Church, 2008.)[52]

Notes

  1. http://www.umc.org/what-we-believe/what-is-the-united-methodist-position-on-abortion
  2. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/161-ii.-the-nurturing-community
  3. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/161-ii.-the-nurturing-community
  4. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/161-ii.-the-nurturing-community
  5. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  6. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  7. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  8. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  9. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  10. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  11. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  12. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  13. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  14. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  15. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  16. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  17. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  18. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  19. http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=4&mid=6560
  20. http://www.umc.org/what-we-believe/ethics-of-embryonic-stem-cell-research
  21. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  22. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/160-i.-the-natural-world
  23. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/160-i.-the-natural-world
  24. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  25. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  26. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  27. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  28. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  29. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  30. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  31. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  32. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  33. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  34. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  35. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  36. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  37. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  38. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  39. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  40. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  41. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  42. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  43. http://www.umc.org/what-we-believe/stem-cell-research
  44. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/161-ii.-the-nurturing-community
  45. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/161-ii.-the-nurturing-community
  46. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/161-ii.-the-nurturing-community
  47. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/161-ii.-the-nurturing-community
  48. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  49. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  50. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
  51. http://umc-gbcs.org/resolutions/new-developments-in-genetic-science-3181-2008-bor
  52. http://umc-gbcs.org/social-principles/162-iii.-the-social-community
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